In vitro assays

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Assay Name

(Link to Protocols)

Toxic effect measurement Type of measurement Potential Interference with NPs
Cell Viability Assay - Tetrazolium Reduction
MTT Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity Absorbance Adsorption of substrate
MTS Cellular dehydrogenase activity Absorbance Adsorption of subtrate
XTT Mitochondrial enzyme activity Absorbance Adsorption of subtrate
WST Cellular dehydrogenase activity Absrobance Adsorption of subtrate
Cell Viability Assay - Resazurin Reduction
Alama Blue Cellular reducing conditions Absorbance Adsorption of subtrate
CellTiter-Blue Metabolic capacity to reduce resazurin into resorufin Fluorescence Fluorescence quenching
Resazurin Quntify active metabolism reducing resazurin Fluorescence Fluorescence quenching
Cell Viability Assay - ATP detection
CellTiter-Glo Quantitation of the ATP Luminescence Luminescence quenching
Cell Viability Assay - Others
LDH Detection of LDH release Absorbance Inhibition of LDH
Neutral red Detection of intact lysosome Absorbance Dye adsorption
CFDA-AM Enzymatic(esterase) activity and membrane integrity Fluorescence Fluorescence quenching
PI uptake Cell Membrane Damage Fluorescence Fluorescence quenching
Trypan blue Protein quantification (staining of dead cell) Absorbance Adsorption of subtrate
Annexin V/PI translocation of phosphatidylserine out of plasma membrane Fluorescence Ca+ depletion/Dye adsorption
CBMN DNA damage Fluorescence
Coomassie Blue Total protein quantitation Absorbance
Stress response
GSH Glo quantification of glutathione Luminescence Luminescence quenching